Makalah Bahasa Inggris Tentang Jaringan

 

NETWORK

 

CHAPTER 1

 

PREMILINARY

 

  • Background

Computer networking is not something new right now. Almost in every company there is a computer network to facilitate the flow of information within the company. Internet is gaining popularity today is a giant computer network which is a computer network that is connected and can interact with each other. This can happen because of the rapid development of network technology, so that in a few years the number of users of computer networks that are incorporated in the Internet multiply.

Since popularizing the Internet and marketed the Windows95 operating system by Microsoft, connecting multiple computers to both personal computers (PCs) and servers with a network of LAN (Local Area Network) types to WAN (Wide Area Network) becomes a common thing. Similarly, the concept of “downsizing” and “lightsizing” which aims to reduce the budget, especially computer equipment, then a network is one thing that is needed.

  • Scope

The purpose of writing this paper is to know / understand about the computer network and utilization in everyday life. By reading this paper is expected we can better understand the information technology, because the nation is a nation that is advanced technology and information master. By understanding the computer network it will greatly facilitate us in completing something in everyday life.

 

 

CHAPTER 2

 

THE ORETICAL BASIS

 

  • Understanding Computer Network

A computer network is a collection of computers, printers and other connected equipment. Information and data move through cables that allow computer network users to exchange documents and data, print on the same printer and share the same hardware / software connected to the network. Each computer, printer or peripheral connected to a network is called a node. A computer network can have two, tens, thousands or even millions of nodes. A network usually consists of 2 or more computers that are interconnected with one another, and share resources such as CDROM, Printer, file exchange, or enable to communicate electronically. The connected computer may be connected to cable media, telephone lines, radio waves, satellites, or infrared rays.

  • Kinds of Networks
  1. Local Area Network (LAN)

A local area network (LAN) is a network that connects computers and devices in a limited geographical area such as a home, school, office building, or closely positioned group of buildings. Each computer or device on the network is a node. Wired LANs are most likely based on Ethernet technology. Newer standards such as ITU-T G.hn also provide a way to create a wired LAN using existing wiring, such as coaxial cables, telephone lines, and power lines.

The defining characteristics of a LAN, in contrast to a wide area network (WAN), include higher data transfer rates, limited geographic range, and lack of reliance on leased lines to provide connectivity. Current Ethernet or other IEEE 802.3 LAN technologies operate at data transfer rates up to 100 Gbit/s, standarized by IEEE in 2010. Currently, 400 Gbit/s Ethernet is being developed.A LAN can be connected to a WAN using a router.

  1. Metropolitan Area Network (MAN)

A metropolitan area network (MAN) is a computer network that interconnects users with computer resources in a geographic area or region larger than that covered by even a large local area network (LAN) but smaller than the area covered by a wide area network (WAN). The term is applied to the interconnection of networks in a city into a single larger network (which may then also offer efficient connection to a wide area network). It is also used to mean the interconnection of several local area networks by bridging them with backbone lines. The latter usage is also sometimes referred to as a campus network.

  1. Wide Area Network (WAN)

A wide area network (WAN) is a computer network that covers a large geographic area such as a city, country, or spans even intercontinental distances. A WAN uses a communications channel that combines many types of media such as telephone lines, cables, and air waves. A WAN often makes use of transmission facilities provided by common carriers, such as telephone companies. WAN technologies generally function at the lower three layers of the OSI reference model: the physical layer, the data link layer, and the network layer.

 

 

 

CHAPTER 3

 

DISCUSSION

 

  • History Of Network

The chronology of significant computer-network developments includes:

  1. In the late 1950s, early networks of computers included the military radar system Semi-Automatic Ground Environment (SAGE).
  2. In 1959, Anatolii Ivanovich Kitov proposed to the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union a detailed plan for the re-organisation of the control of the Soviet armed forces and of the Soviet economy on the basis of a network of computing centres.[2]
  3. In 1960, the commercial airline reservation system semi-automatic business research environment (SABRE) went online with two connected mainframes.
  4. In 1962, C.R. Licklider developed a working group he called the “Intergalactic Computer Network“, a precursor to the ARPANET, at the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA).
  5. In 1964, researchers at Dartmouth College developed the Dartmouth Time Sharing System for distributed users of large computer systems. The same year, at Massachusetts Institute of Technology, a research group supported by General Electric and Bell Labs used a computer to route and manage telephone connections.
  6. Throughout the 1960s, Leonard Kleinrock, Paul Baran, and Donald Davies independently developed network systems that used packets to transfer information between computers over a network.
  7. In 1965, Thomas Marill and Lawrence G. Roberts created the first wide area network (WAN). This was an immediate precursor to the ARPANET, of which Roberts became program manager.
  8. Also in 1965, Western Electric introduced the first widely used telephone switch that implemented true computer control.
  9. In 1969, the University of California at Los Angeles, the Stanford Research Institute, the University of California at Santa Barbara, and the University of Utah became connected as the beginning of the ARPANET network using 50 kbit/s circuits.
  10. In 1972, commercial services using 25 were deployed, and later used as an underlying infrastructure for expanding TCP/IP networks.
  11. In 1973, Robert Metcalfe wrote a formal memo at Xerox PARC describing Ethernet, a networking system that was based on the Aloha network, developed in the 1960s by Norman Abramson and colleagues at the University of Hawaii. In July 1976, Robert Metcalfe and David Boggs published their paper “Ethernet: Distributed Packet Switching for Local Computer Networks”and collaborated on several patents received in 1977 and 1978. In 1979, Robert Metcalfe pursued making Ethernet an open standard.
  12. In 1976, John Murphy of Datapoint Corporation created ARCNET, a token-passing network first used to share storage devices.
  13. In 1995, the transmission speed capacity for Ethernet increased from 10 Mbit/s to 100 Mbit/s. By 1998, Ethernet supported transmission speeds of a Gigabit. Subsequently, higher speeds of up to 100 Gbit/s were added (as of 2016). The ability of Ethernet to scale easily (such as quickly adapting to support new fiber optic cable speeds) is a contributing factor to its continued use.

 

  • Types of Network Topology

Network Topology is the schematic description of a network arrangement, connecting various nodes(sender and receiver) through lines of connection.

  1. BUS Topology

Bus topology is a network type in which every computer and network device is connected to single cable. When it has exactly two endpoints, then it is called LinearBustopology.

·         Features of Bus Topology

  1. It transmits data only in one direction.
  2. Every device is connected to a single cable

·         Advantages of Bus Topology

  1. It is cost effective.
  2. Cable required is least compared to other network topology.
  3. Used in small networks.
  4. It is easy to understand.
  5. Easy to expand joining two cables together.

·         Disadvantages of Bus Topology

  1. Cables fails then whole network fails.
  2. If network traffic is heavy or nodes are more the performance of the network decreases.
  3. Cable has a limited length.
  4. It is slower than the ring topology.

2. Ring Topology

It is called ring topology because it forms a ring as each computer is connected to another computer, with the last one connected to the first. Exactly two neighbours for each device.

·         Features of Ring Topology

  1. A number of repeaters are used for Ring topology with large number of nodes, because if someone wants to send some data to the last node in the ring topology with 100 nodes, then the data will have to pass through 99 nodes to reach the 100th node. Hence to prevent data loss repeaters are used in the network.
  2. The transmission is unidirectional, but it can be made bidirectional by having 2 connections between each Network Node, it is called Dual Ring Topology.
  3. In Dual Ring Topology, two ring networks are formed, and data flow is in opposite direction in them. Also, if one ring fails, the second ring can act as a backup, to keep the network up.
  4. Data is transferred in a sequential manner that is bit by bit. Data transmitted, has to pass through each node of the network, till the destination node.

·         Advantages of Ring Topology

  1. Transmitting network is not affected by high traffic or by adding more nodes, as only the nodes having tokens can transmit data.
  2. Cheap to install and expand

·         Disadvantages of Ring Topology

  1. Troubleshooting is difficult in ring topology.
  2. Adding or deleting the computers disturbs the network activity.
  3. Failure of one computer disturbs the whole network.

 

  1. Star Topology

In this type of topology all the computers are connected to a single hub through a cable. This hub is the central node and all others nodes are connected to the central node.

·         Features of Star Topology

  1. Every node has its own dedicated connection to the hub.
  2. Hub acts as a repeater for data flow.
  3. Can be used with twisted pair, Optical Fibre or coaxial cable.

·         Advantages of Star Topology

  1. Fast performance with few nodes and low network traffic.
  2. Hub can be upgraded easily.
  3. Easy to troubleshoot.
  4. Easy to setup and modify.
  5. Only that node is affected which has failed, rest of the nodes can work smoothly.

·         Disadvantages of Star Topology

  1. Cost of installation is high.
  2. Expensive to use.
  3. If the hub fails then the whole network is stopped because all the nodes depend on the hub.
  4. Performance is based on the hub that is it depends on its capacity

 

4. Mesh Topology

It is a point-to-point connection to other nodes or devices. All thenetwork nodes are connected to each other. Mesh has physical channels to link devices.

Here are two techniques to transmit data over the Mesh topology, they are :

  1. Routing
  2. Flooding

·         Routing

In routing, the nodes have a routing logic, as per the network requirements. Like routing logic to direct the data to reach the destination using the shortest distance. Or, routing logic which has information about the broken links, and it avoids those node etc. We can even have routing logic, to re-configure the failed nodes.

·         Flooding

In flooding, the same data is transmitted to all the network nodes, hence no routing logic is required. The network is robust, and the its very unlikely to lose the data. But it leads to unwanted load over the network.

·         Types of Mesh Topology

  1. Partial Mesh TopologyIn this topology some of the systems are connected in the same fashion as mesh topology but some devices are only connected to two or three devices.
  2. Full Mesh TopologyEach and every nodes or devices are connected to each other.

·         Features of Mesh Topology

  1. Fully connected.
  2. Not flexible.

·         Advantages of Mesh Topology

  1. Each connection can carry its own data load.
  2. It is robust.
  3. Fault is diagnosed easily.
  4. Provides security and privacy.

·         Disadvantages of Mesh Topology

  1. Installation and configuration is difficult.
  2. Cabling cost is more.
  3. Bulk wiring is required.

 

5. TREE Topology

It has a root node and all other nodes are connected to it forming a hierarchy. It is also called hierarchical topology. It should at least have three levels to the hierarchy.

·         Features of Tree Topology

  1. Ideal if workstations are located in groups.
  2. Used in Wide Area Network.

·         Advantages of Tree Topology

  1. Extension of bus and star topologies.
  2. Expansion of nodes is possible and easy.
  3. Easily managed and maintained.
  4. Error detection is easily done.

·         Disadvantages of Tree Topology

  1. Heavily cabled.
  2. If more nodes are added maintenance is difficult.
  3. Central hub fails, network fails.

 

6. HYBRID Topology

It is two different types of topologies which is a mixture of two or more topologies. For example if in an office in one department ring topology is used and in another star topology is used, connecting these topologies will result in Hybrid Topology (ring topology and star topology).

·         Features of Hybrid Topology

  1. It is a combination of two or topologies
  2. Inherits the advantages and disadvantages of the topologies included

·         Advantages of Hybrid Topology

  1. Reliable as Error detecting and trouble shooting is easy.
  2. Scalable as size can be increased easily.

·         Disadvantages of Hybrid Topology

  1. Complex in design.

 

 

CHAPTER IV

 

CLOSING

 

4.1 Conclusion

From the writings that have been authors described in the above article can be taken some conclusions, computer network cooperation is divided into:

  1. Local Area Network (LAN)
  2. Metropolitan Area Network (MAN
  3. Wide Area Network (WAN)

 

4.2 Suggestions

The suggestions that the author can convey on this occasion are:

  1. Computer network technology greatly facilitate us in variousactivities, therefore do not we use wrong because it will be harmful to other parties,
  2. Rebuild our knowledge of network computer

 

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